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From RNA to Protein

From RNA to protein



Tracking a trait from gene to phenotype: The BAD2 gene determines fragrance in rice


  • The BAD2 gene. L-1. Print and read. Key point: the genetic basis of fragarance.
  • What's a gene? L-1. A diagram illustrating key regions of a gene and its transcript




A. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a key nucleic acid in transcription and translation. RNA is like DNA except that:

  1. it is usually single rather than double stranded
  2. it contains ribose rather than deoxyribose
  3. it contains the base uracil rather than thymine

     A comprehensive comparison of deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides


  • RNA. L-1. Structure and definition.
  • A comprehensive comparison. L-1. Key differences summarized.


B. General classes of RNA: informational, functional, and regulatory

  1. Informational (messenger); mRNA

  2. Functional (transfer, ribosomal RNA)
  3. Regulatory: (RNAi)
  • mRNA. L-1.Components and steps in processing.
  • tRNA. L-1. 5' and 3'; double and single stranded regions; the anticodon
  • rRNA. L-1. Subunits and subunits + proteins
  • RNAi. L-3. Discussion deferred until gene expression and regulation

Transcription (animation)

A. Overview: The process of transcription uses an intermediate - the messenger RNA (mRNA) - which can transmit the information in the DNA to the next step: translation. There are three steps in transcription: initiation, elongation, and termination. Either strand of the DNA may be the template strand for RNA synthesis for a given gene.  For any given gene, the template strand is also referred to as the antisense (or non-coding)  strand and the non-template strand as the sense (or coding) strand.  The same DNA strand is not necessarily transcribed throughout the entire length of the chromosome or throughout the life of the organism.  

B. RNA polymerases:


C. The three steps in transcription

  1. Initiation: Transcription is initiated at the promoter. The promoter is a key feature for control of gene expression. Promoters have defined attributes, in terms of their sequence organization. Example: the HvBM5A promoter region.






5' and 3' UTRs:

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